Sufism in Islam
Sufism (tasawwuf) did not appear until after the first three generations which the Messenger of Allaah (SAS) praised when he said, “The best of mankind is my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them…” (narrated by al-Bukhaari, 2652; Muslim, 2533).
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (rh) said: With regard to the word soofiyyah (Sufism), it was not known during the first three generations, rather it became known after that. [Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/5]
The different tareeqahs and its like are among the innovated ways that go against the Qur’aan and Sunnah and the way followed by the best generations. All the shaykhs of these tareeqahs have made up their own wirds (phrases to be uttered as dhikr), hizb (books of du’aa’ to be read daily by their followers) and ways of worship by which each of them may be distinguished from the others; this goes against sharee’ah [teachings of the Prophet(SAS)] and divides the ummah.
Allaah has blessed this ummah by perfecting its religion and completing His Favour upon it, so everyone who comes up with an act of worship or a way that was not brought by sharee’ah is effectively rejecting what Allaah has revealed and accusing the Prophet (SAS) of betraying the trust.
Along with this innovation of theirs, they may also be lying by claiming that they received their tareeqah from the Prophet (SAS), or that they are following the path and guidance of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs.
There is no such thing in Islam as the numerous tareeqahs like the Shaadhilyyah, Khalwatiyyah, Tijanniya etc?
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And verily, this is My straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Al‑Muttaqoon (the pious)”[al-An’aam 6:153] “And upon Allaah is the responsibility to explain the Straight Path. But there are ways that turn aside (such as Paganism, Judaism, Christianity). And had He willed, He would have guided you all (mankind)”[al-Nahl 16:9]
What are the ways that separate people from the path of Allaah, and what is the way of Allaah? What is the meaning of the hadeeth narrated by Ibn Mas’ood, according to which the Messenger (SAS) drew a line and said, “This is the path of guidance,” then he drew lines to its right and another to its left and said, “These are other paths and on each path there is a devil calling people to it”?
The Prophet (SAS) said: “The Jews split into seventy-one sects, and the Christians split into seventy-two sects. My ummah will split into seventy-three sects, all of which will be in Hell except one.” It was asked, “Who are they, O Messenger of Allaah?” He said, “Those who follow the same path as I and my companions are on today.” And he (SAS) said, “A group among my ummah will continue to follow the truth and to be victorious, and they will not be harmed by those who forsake them or oppose them, until the command of Allaah comes to pass when they are like that.”
The truth lies in following the Qur’aan and the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (SAS). This is the path of Allaah, this is the Straight Path. This is the straight line mentioned in the hadeeth, and this is what was followed by the companions of the Prophet (SAS) and with their followers among the early generations (salaf) of this ummah, and with those who follow their path.
All other tareeqahs or groups are the paths mentioned in the verse: “… and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path…”[al-An’aam 6:153]